The web is built on links, and web users routinely use links to find the information they need. When a site links to your site, web users follow those links, resulting in web traffic, or referral traffic. When these backlinks, also called inbound links, come from high quality sites, they also tell Google your content is authoritative and trustworthy. This is important because inbound links from respected sites are an SEO ranking factor, so they can boost organic traffic, too.
When someone visits a website, their computer or other web-connected device communicates with the website's server. Each page on the web is made up of dozens of distinct files. The site's server transmits each file to user browsers where they are assembled and formed into a cumulative piece with graphics and text. Every file sent represents a single “hit”, so a single page viewing can result in numerous hits.
A good example of a basic but highly functional website would probably be Majestecsocal.com. However, the exact type of design you should be considering depends on your target audience and niche. In some niches (like the one the example website is based around), users would want to have everything in one place, and hence a basic but very functional design would hit the spot pretty well.
Web analytics is the measurement of the behavior of visitors to a website. In a commercial context, it especially refers to the measurement of which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives of Internet marketing initiatives; for example, which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. Notable vendors of web analytics software and services include Google Analytics, IBM Digital Analytics (formerly Coremetrics) and Adobe Omniture.